The Rainbow Temperance Song, Library of Congress, 1868.
A pathfinder is just the beginning of building your bibliography.

Guiding Questions:
  • Historical forces/factors that led to development of movements
  • Obstacles/challenges reformers faced
  • Tools/Methods used to overcome obstacles
  • Major figures involved in the movement
  • To what degree were the movements successful?
  • Why is this issue still provoking thought today?

  • Temperance movement in the 19th century and "War on Drugs" of the 20th and 21st century
  • Prison reform- past and present
  • Human rights today (human trafficking, child labor, immigrant rights) and the Abolitionist movement.
  • Second Great Awakening and Fundamentalism today

Reform assignment class wikis

Reference materials


Type keyword into this search box to find reference e-books.

  • REF 277.3 UTT The Religious Right: a reference handbook. 2007.Primary documents, biographies, and readings about the current religious movement.
  • REF 306.097 ENC V.1 Encyclopedia of Social Issues. 1997. Examines social issues currently confronting the American public including civil rights, immigration, the environment, and more.
  • REF 973 ENC Encyclopedia of American History. 2003. Presents entries on American history covering the early to mid-nineteenth century, focusing on the country's expansion and reform. Also includes a chronology, bibliography, documents, and index.
  • REF 973.5 AME American eras. Detroit, MI. : Gale Research, c1998. Explores life in the reform era between 1815 and 1850 from the perspectives of world events, the arts, business and the economy, communications, education, government and politics, law and justice, religion, science and medicine, sports and recreation, and lifestyles, and includes a chronology of world events.
  • World Book Encyclopedia- the online encyclopedia is a good place to start this project.

Non-Fiction Books

Non-fiction books about this topic are found in various sections of the library. Be sure to do a keyword search using the online catalog (Destiny) to find materials under other subject areas.
  • Google Books- excellent source for books with useful primary sources. For example try typing "temperance and united states" and you will find old books written during this movement.
  • 178.1 C Chidsey, Donald. On and off the wagon : a sober analysis of the temperance movement from the Pilgrims through prohibition.
  • 305.4 C Coppens, Linda Miles. What American women did, 1789-1920 : a year-by-year reference. A year-by-year chronicle of individual women's achievements in the areas of domesticity, work, education and scholarship, religion, arts, organized reform efforts, and law and politics from 1789 to 1920; also includes a bibliography.
  • 306.3 W Winckelmann, Thom. Human trafficking. 2009. Introduction: modern-day slaves -- What is human trafficking? -- The demand for cheap labor -- Soldiers and the sex trade -- Child victims of human trafficking -- Freeing enslaved humans. Describes various cases of human trafficking including the African slave trade from the 1600s to the mid-1800s, child labor camps in India, and sex trafficking.
  • 324.6 Women's suffrage in America: an eyewitness history. Frost, E and Cullen-DuPont, K. 1992.
  • 331.0973 M Meltzer, Milton, 1915-. Bread--and roses : the struggle of American labor, 1865-1915. 1967. A documented account of the growth of the American labor movement from the Civil War to World War I.
  • 331.3 H Hobbs, Sandy. Child labor : a world history companion. 1999. Chronicles the history of child labor from the beginning of the Industrial Revolution to the end of the twentieth century.

WHS databases

Log into any of these databases by clicking on the link. If you are away from home, you will have to use a remote username and/or password. These can be found on the Library Media Center brochure. Make sure to take one home before leaving school!!
  • ProQuest Historical Newspapers Search old newspapers for primary sources- Boston Globe (1872-); NY Times (1851-); Wall Street Journal (1880-).
  • Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center Perfect for finding info about the "war on drugs" and other contemporary issues.
  • Global Issues in Context good for finding primary sources. Try typing in United States and temperance and then click on primary sources.
  • SIRS Decades Good for finding out who the major figures were from all of the movements. Find primary sources and articles.
  • U.S. History in Context try doing an Advanced Search and try typing "United States and reform" and a keyword for your topic.

Internet sites

BPL: electronic resources

You will need a BPL e-card in order to access these databases. Ask Ms. Dalbec if you need help applying for a card.
  • Virtual Reference Library - Includes more than 90 encyclopedias, plus numerous specialized reference sources covering a diversity of subjects including Arts, Biography, Business, Education, Environment, History, Law, Literature, Medicine, Multicultural Studies, Nation & World, Religion, Science, and Social Science. Some "Junior" sources included as well.